It might not be such a total dichotomy, a North Coast Hiawatha would only be a new route between Spokane and Fargo (or it could get Yakima too). And there are others where the new service could double up on parts and hit new territory on others. The Pioneer would be mostly unserved cities but could connect or double up in various places. I think shorter long distance might be a better option to max new service and minimize the LD lateness issue and require fewer new trainsets and crew.So with all these suggestions, would it be better to run a second train on a long distance route on the same route as the first, with “economy of scale” savings, using all existing stations and other infrastructure, and at the same time offering more choices for on line passengers, or would it be better to use a more or less parallel alternate route, to tap into more markets?
For example, run a second frequency on the current CZ route, or run it via the UP from Chicago all the way, including via the Feather River Canyon?
Even with the constraints of existing RoW and Rail, stations and other limitations, there are many possibilities to serve the shifting demographics.